Why do brown bears act so much at tar-treated power poles (Barsucha steading, Naliboki Forest, Belarus)?

In Naliboki Forest (north-western Belarus)there is Barsucha steading  that was abandoned by locals seven years ago. For the last five years a male brown bear has been living here. There are about thirty power poles that brought electricity to the steading. The power poles were made from pine logs and deeply treated with tar (particularly by creosote). At least, 22 of these poles were regularly visited by the bear. The bear acted there by gnawing the poles and rubbing against them by different ways. Additionally the bear dug for the tar around the pole and rolled a lot on at the poles.

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The variety of life styles of Eurasian lynxes in Belarus: a combination of the gained results and hypotheses

In Eurasian lynxes there are several age-sex categories, which are strikingly or markedly differed by their life styles.  The data that leads us (Naust Eco Station & Wild Naliboki) to this conclusion originated from about 2300 km of snowtracking lynxes, multiannual study of lynxes with camera-traps (up to 70) and much other various research results. Among them the results of two lynx telemetry projects.

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Enigma of lynx pee

During quite a lot of studies on the Eurasian lynx in Naliboki Forest and Paazierre Forest we realized that this species is still so poorly known (Sidorovich et al., 2019). Even a simple lynx pee hides several non-studied questions that were raised during investigation the species behavior. Several curious pee-related phenomena were registered that was already some achievement, but for every one still there is a pressing question how such a pee regime is possible on a morph-physiological level i.e. by means of which morph-physiological adaptations of the species.  Maybe somebody, after reading the post, will try to investigate the lynx pee questions.
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Great interest in marking by lynxes from other mammals

This post addresses the  intriguing question of a great interest of wolves, red foxes and deer to lynx marking points, but there is no an opposite reaction of lynxes to marking by the above species. It is easy to realize, why red deer, roe deer and red foxes pay so much attention –  lynxes kill them often. Therefore, any information about lynx distribution and status (adult or young, sex, welfare etc.) are important for these victim species. The same is for wolves. Adult lynxes not rarely kill wolves  from vulnerable categories such as pups, heavily pregnant females, just small individuals (Sidorovich et al., 2018). However why do lynxes pay a minimal attention to marking by deer and even by wolves?

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Abandoned log piles as habitat spots that are important for lynx families

Quite often clearcuts in Naliboki Forest are full of logging remains. Moreover, sometimes loggers forget one or several piles of logs and they stay there for decades. It is always like a gift for lynxes, particularly the species families. The main  benefit of lynx family is that mother may leave small kittens there, and they will be safe alone in the emptiness under the logs, when the mother goes for hunting. It is especially essential, because  lynxes frequently use a long-lasting hunting from ambuscades, so, kittens need to wait for the mother quite long.

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Non-howling silent wolves in Belarus

Every time rereading the excellent wolf monograph by Mech and Boitani (2003), in particular, the item about wolf communication by Harrington and Asa, I was surprised to find out how rich voice-communication of wolves in North America and somewhere else can be. In my study areas in Belarus (look like in the whole country) I can characterize wolves as non-howling let’s say silent.  More and more I become convinced that wolves in Belarus avoid to produce any loud noise.

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Trends in the denning behaviour of the wolf and lynx in connection with the changes in the vertebrate community in Naliboki Forest (north-western Belarus)

By investigating the denning behaviour and ecology of wolves (Sidorovich and Rotenko, 2018) and lynxes in Naliboki Forest, we faced with several evident trends during the last years (2016-2018) that we connect with the changes in the local vertebrate community or  more specifically with the pronounced changes in the population densities of those species  that may affect the denning conditions for wolves and lynxes.
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